Bordeaux is the capital of The Gironde department with a population of 660,000 people, and is one of the largest cities in France and one of the largest in Europe. Bordeaux is an economic, commercial and industrial centre, but its principal source is the
wine trade. All the wine produced in the Bordelais region is known as Bordeaux wine.
In the 5th century, the city lost its importance, but it increased again when the city became the seat of the Dukes of Aquitaine. Commercial activity also increased during this same period.
The intellectual reputation of Bordeaux was made by Montaigne and Montesquieu, who were born nearby and who were both magistrates in the city. In the 18th century Bordeaux began exporting wine to England and the relationship between these regions improved.
The Third Republic was established in Bordeaux in the National Assembly in 1871. Bordeaux was the temporary seat of The French Goverment during both World Wars.