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Paris History

In 1800, Napoleon was declared first consul and under his rule, Paris became a military power. In May 1804, he declared himself Emperor. Napoleon fought against the British, the Austrians and the Russians, but unfortunately, was defeated by the Russians and Austrians, on 31 March 1814. Paris was invaded by them and it was the first time the city had been conquered by a foreign army.

On 25 July 1830 Charles X (1824-1830) dissolved the Chamber of Deputies and restricted voting rights to the landed gentry only. Some time later, he was forced to abdicate and was replaced by Louis-Philippe.

Arc of Triomphe
The Industrial Revolution in Paris meant an increase in its population, more than any other city in France. It was then the third largest city in the world and it began to grow in population and also in the construction of monumental buildings, such as the Arc of Triomphe and the Eglise du Dome. However, in 1831 a cholera epidemic reduced the population from 900,000 to 19,000 inhabitants.


Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, the nephew of the late Emperor was elected in 1848, and like his uncle was also declared Emperor Napoleon III by himself. In 1870 Napoleon declared war on Prussia, but was defeated, captured and he abdicated on September 4th, coinciding with the beginning of the third Republic. On 19 September, the Prussian army arrived in Paris and the Louvre was then turned into a military centre. Starvation was so bad during that time that there was no other choice, but for people to eat dogs, cats and rats. After the terrible Third Republic, new times came to Paris and in 1889, it hosted The Universal Exposition, the Eiffel Tower was constructed, the Moulin Rouge became famous for its shows and the metro system was inaugurated in 1900.

In 1981 François Mitterrand was elected and some changes occurred in politics and in the city's appearance. The Louvre was redeveloped and the famous glass pyramid was built. The Opéra Bastille and Bibliotheque Nationale de France were also constructed and in 2001 Bertrand Delanoë, the first openly gay mayor was elected. Delanoë's lastest major development is the southern "boulevard of the marshals".


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